London Terrorist Tried to Radicalize Children

(Illustrative photo: Sean Gallup/Getty Images)

Clarion Project, by Meira Svirsky, June 5, 2017:

One of the three jihadi terrorists responsible for the London attacks Saturday night was actively targeting children – easy prey, whom he hoped to radicalize.

In fact, a neighbor of the terrorist, Erica Gasparri, an Italian mother with three children, reported him to the police two years ago after realizing he was “brainwashing” her children.

“He was trying to radicalize the children, he would go down to the park and talk to them about Islam. He also came to the houses and gave the kids money and sweets during Ramadan,” Gasparri said, speaking to The Telegraph.

Gasparri confronted him after one of her children came home from a local park saying, “Mummy, I want to become a Muslim” after encounters with him.

Children are increasingly becoming targets for radicals. Their tactics range from threats, force and intimidation to more subtle methods of brainwashing through the media and school systems.

Regardless of the methodology used, the end goal is the same: to raise a generation of kids who believe the West is the enemy and must be destroyed.

This radicalization is also happening at home, in the United States. Extremists are using social media to reach a broader audience and lure Western teenagers into joining terrorist organizations. According to the FBI, there are currently ISIS-related investigations in all 50 states, and more than 30% of the Americans charged with ISIS-related activities are under the age of 20.

Get a sneak peek of Clarion’s next film KiDS: Inside the Terror Factory (working title), which documents the exploitation and radicalization of children by Islamist extremists.


  1. American Salafist Preacher Ahmad Musa Jibril

    Through the internet and social media, Ahmad Jibril spews his extremism. One of the London terrorists was reportedly radicalized by watching Jibril’s videos.

    When a friend of the terrorist noticed he was becoming radicalized through the videos, he reported him to British authorities, who, unfortunately, did not arrest him.

    “He used to listen to a lot of Musa Jibril. I have heard some of this stuff and its very radical. I am surprised this stuff is still on YouTube and is easily accessible. I phoned the anti-terror hotline. I spoke to the gentleman. I told him about our conversation and why I think he was radicalized.”

    Jihadis have become extremely adroit at exploiting the internet, using it as a powerful tool to radicalize and recruit to their cause.

  2. The Trojan Horse Scandal

    Beginning in 2014, authorities investigated at least a dozen independent Muslim schools in the East London borough of Tower Hamlets because of evidence that Islamic extremists took over the schools.

    The investigation followed similar inquiries into secular schools in Birmingham that were found to have been infiltrated by Muslim extremists. The investigations were dubbed the Trojan Horse scandal and revealed that attempts to introduce Islamist or Salafist ideology into the UK schools were ongoing for 20 years.

    In 2015, a Quebec television program exposed schools – some publicly funded — owned by organizations that have a history of supporting terrorism.

    In America, powerful Islamist Fetullah Gulen, and ex-pat from Turkey, runs the largest charter school network in the country – fully funded by taxpayer money.

  3. ISIS

    Islamic State (ISIS/ISIL) is notorious for its project called the “Caliphate Cubs” to radicalize the next generation to work for the organization and its goal of creating a worldwide caliphate run by sharialaw.One project, which targets young children, is an app, which ostensibly teaches the letters of the Arabic alphabet but places violent imagery and songs to indoctrinate children. Children are rewarded  if they say they are prepared to carry out attacks on the West, with targets including the Statue of Liberty, Big Ben and the Eiffel Tower.

    In its territory, ISIS kidnaps and brainwashes children through its terror training camps. The group releases many videos showing these camps and child executioners.

  4. Hamas and the Palestinian Authority

    A television show for pre-schoolers, a theater contest at a school, hit songs that encourage the use of “cleavers and knives” – are among mediums used by the Palestinian Authority and Hamas to teach Palestinian children to hate Jews and incite them to punch, stab, shoot and otherwise kill the “enemy.”

    Palestinian textbooks teach their children that Israel has no right to exist; the Palestinian Authority uses sports events to glorify terrorists, naming tournaments and festivals after the most gruesome killers; Hitler is held up as the ultimate role model in PA schools and on their Facebook pages; and P.A. media teaches children the pleasure and rewards of martyrdom.

    As if that was not enough, Hamas provides military training and indoctrination for kids through their summer camps in which Palestinian children receive paramilitary training, including how to make a homemade rocket and how to fire guns (training uses live ammunition).

  5. Somalia

    Al-Shabaab, the brutal Islamist terror organization responsible for the Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya, recruits children for use as soldiers. Children are lured to join the group through the use of extremist propaganda and material rewards.

    Religious events in mosques provide fertile ground for recruitment as well. Mosques in the United States, in areas with heavy Somali immigrant populations, such as Minnesota, have also played roles in recruiting older boys, even those born and raised in the U.S.

    Al-Shabaab has also proven remarkably sophisticated in its use of the Internet to post recruitment appeals aimed directly at young Somali-Americans that feature glorified battle scenes and personal testimonials from Somali-Americans already among its ranks.

Clarion’s next film KiDS: Inside the Terror Factory (working title) documents the exploitation and radicalization of children by Islamist extremists. KiDS will feature compelling personal stories of children and their families who are being actively influenced by extremists and activists who are working to confront this growing global threat. The film is currently in production.

Grooming Jihadists: The Ladder of Radicalization and Its Antidote

Gatestone Institute, by Saher Fares, June 1, 2017:

  • What you find is that behind every jihadist, who usually starts out as a young, often angry, Muslim seeking a purpose, lies a pulpit ideologue promising rewards and threatening punishments both on earth and in the afterlife.
  • Violent jihad may be postponed not out of concern for its victims, but rather if it might adversely affect a Muslim community. This view is frequently mistaken as “moderate.”
  • Use the press and social media to expose young Muslims to facts other than those they are fed in mosques and the textbooks of their native countries, including the humanistic values of the West, such as freedom of speech and of the press; equal justice under the law — especially due process and the presumption of innocence; property rights; separation of religion and state; an independent judiciary; an independent educational system and freedom of religion and from religion — for a start.

On March 22, when Khalid Masood rammed his vehicle into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge in London before attempting to stab his way to the Parliament building, it was as if the heart and soul of British democracy were under assault.

As horrifying as the terrorist attack was, however — murdering four innocent people and wounding scores of others — it belied the magnitude of a much larger problem that has been plaguing Europe and creeping up on the rest of the West. Jihadists committing murder in the name of Islam have left a trail of blood across North America, the Middle East, Australia, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe.

Police officers stand guard on London’s Westminster Bridge on March 29, 2017, a week after Khalid Masood began his murderous car-ramming and stabbing attack at the site. (Photo by Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)

In November 2015, a suicide-bombing and shooting spree in Paris left 130 people dead and hundreds wounded; in March 2016, three coordinated suicide bombings targeting travelers in Brussels killed 32 and wounded hundreds; and last December, a truck-ramming at the Christmas market in Berlin left 12 people dead and another 56 injured.

These were just a few of the successful attacks; those thwarted were more numerous.

France’s prime minister said last September that authorities were foiling plots “daily,” while some 15,000 people “in the process of radicalization” were being monitored. Last year, British security services prevented no fewer than 12 other assaults.

The average European now knows the names of Masood and those of other publicized terrorists. But few in the West are familiar with the many people who put those terrorists on their path by leading them up the rungs of a ladder of radicalization.

If you spend hours listening to speeches and sermons — and reading countless articles by “respectable” local imams, community leaders and Islamic scholars — you can see a pattern emerge. What you find is that behind every jihadist, who usually starts out as a young, often angry, Muslim seeking a purpose, lies a pulpit ideologue promising rewards and threatening punishments both on earth and in the afterlife.

The following is a description of the ladder of radicalization, based on material from 45 detailed case studies, covering the period 2012-2015, compiled by the author from U.K. government sources:

  • A radical preacher commonly employs theological “carrots and sticks” as a spur to action. He attempts to terrorize audiences with passages from religious literature about the horrors of hell. He shames those he brands complacent or reluctant to engage in jihad, and instills a heightened sense of crisis. He does this while harping on the notion of Muslim superiority and providing an idealized reading of history that emphasizes “glorious Islamic conquests.”
  • The preacher quotes passages from the Quran and hadith [the sayings and deeds of Muhammad], gradually ratcheting up his rhetoric until openly calling for the restoration of the caliphate through global jihad. The preacher determines whether jihad is beneficial at a given time — or whether it needs to be deferred — depending on the clout a Muslim community has attained in a host country or culture. In other words, he decides whether to “declare jihad” based on what he deems possible for the Muslim ummah [community] at that time. Violent jihad may be postponed not out of concern for its victims, but rather if it might adversely affect a Muslim community. This view is frequently mistaken as “moderate.”
  • The preacher presents stark, simplistic choices, cornering his audience into accepting his particular reading of Islam, and leaving no option but jihad. He does this by using language that evokes gut emotions. He presents the Quran, hadiths and Islamic history in a way he knows his audience is in no position to challenge. He juxtaposes, for instance, incidents in Muhammad’s life to explain modern geopolitics — such as the Arab-Israeli conflict — and that point to a particular course of action. Or he uses ancient Islamic conquests as an inspirational model for current jihadist attacks against the West.

At the root of such preaching is a totalitarian worldview. According to it, there is no distinction between private freedoms and the public good. The past and the present are on a continuum. Secular matters are meticulously “guided” by clerical judgements. The nation state, he alleges, will give way to the caliphate. Morality is stressed, but expressed more in outward appearance (such as modest dress) than as an internal spiritual goal. And he emphasizes that the purpose of public worship is to consolidate al-mumeneen (the believers) into a unified bloc in the cause of jihad — which ultimately entails physical warfare. The underlying theme is that all “infidels” are to be held in perpetual hostility until, as is written in the Quran, “Allah’s word reigns supreme.”

One reason that this radicalization process has gone undetected in the West has to do with language. Imams and Islamist intellectuals use terms that are seemingly identical to those of Judeo-Christian or secular-liberal discourse, but which have an entirely different connotation in Arabic.

Salaam, “peace,” means the peace that will reign only after the whole world has accepted living under the rule of Islam.

Shihada, for example, often translated as “martyrdom,” usually refers to the act of those who kill or are killed in battle for a religiously-sanctioned cause. It is not a testimony of faith in laying down one’s life instead of recanting under pressure.

Iman, translated as “faith,” is proven by total submission to Allah, His Messenger Mohammed and the edicts of sharia as propagated by the leader. It is of great “faith” not to waver in battle against Allah’s enemies.

Qassas, wrongly interpreted as “justice”, often entails a sense of vindictiveness, and “eye-for-an-eye” revenge. It is also circumscribed by Islamic law, sharia: whatever is inside sharia is just; whatever is outside sharia is not just.

Fight them; Allah will torment [not “punish” as many current translations claim] them by your hands… and will give you victory over them and satisfy the breasts (give a great sense of satisfaction, relief) of a believing people. — Quran, 9:14, after Sahih International

Power is elevated as an Allah-given right to the believers, whereas humility is scorned as a sign of weakness. The goal toward which you are urged to aspire is not equality but ascendancy.

It is a matter of ihssan, or “benevolence” of Muslims that they tolerate the life and severely limited “liberties” of dhimmis (subjugated non-Muslims) so long as the latter pay a “protection” tax, the jizya, and abide by a covenant of inferiority “while feeling themselves subdued”. In a state ruled by sharia, equal citizenship between Muslims and non-Muslims is unthinkable.

To challenge Islam’s authority, its prophet’s character or received tradition, or to critique the religion, is construed as ihanah, or “insult”; sabb-e-Rasul, “disparaging the Prophet,” is a libelous offense worthy of death. Failure to accept Islam is also regarded as an “insult” that justifies attack:

As to those who reject faith, I will punish them with terrible agony in this world and in the Hereafter, nor will they have anyone to help. — Quran (3:56)

Counteracting the radicalization of vulnerable Muslims requires a multi-pronged effort on the part of governments, academic institutions and community leaders. Here are a few recommendations:

  • Discourage voluntary segregation in Muslim communities. Establish initiatives that introduce genuine multiculturalism into classrooms, neighborhoods and community centers. This is the only way that insular, extremist thought can be debated and challenged openly by Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
  • Prevent fundamentalist Muslim community leaders from hiding behind a “moderate” or “mainstream” façade. Hold preachers accountable for the content of their sermons, and make sure that what they are promoting in Arabic aligns with their public statements in English.
  • Subject the history of early Islam — the conquests of Persia, the Byzantine Empire, the Middle East, North Africa, Greece, Spain and most of Eastern Europe — to the same academic rigors to which Western history has been subjected. Do not allow a romantic view of it as a “superior” model to go unchallenged, and do not shy away from examining similarities between current and centuries-old jihadism. The same goes for religious texts and their modern-day interpretations.
  • Use the press and social media to expose young Muslims to facts other than those they are fed in mosques and the textbooks of their native countries, including the humanistic values of the West, such as freedom of speech and of the press; equal justice under the law — especially due process and the presumption of innocence; property rights; separation of religion and state; an independent judiciary; an independent educational system, and freedom of religion and from religion — for a start.

Those who preach hate simply build on ahistorical, uncontested narratives to spread the messages that inspired the Manchester, London, Paris, Brussels and Berlin terrorists and that groom the terrorists of tomorrow. When will correcting the record and addressing the root causes please start?

Saher Fares is an Arabic linguist and researcher from the Middle East.

Why Are Terror Leader al-Awlaki’s Video Messages Still on YouTube?

awlaki-1Fox News Insider, December 5, 2016:

YouTube has the ability to remove videos seen as having the potential to recruit terrorists, says Fox News senior judicial analyst Judge Andrew Napolitano.

The judge joined Jenna Lee on Happening Now to discuss growing questions on why the videos of radical Islamic cleric Anwar al-Awlaki – leader of the al Qaeda affiliate in Yemen – have been allowed to remain on YouTube.

Investigators have linked the ideology of al-Awlaki, who was killed in Yemen five years ago, to at least 11 incidents since 2009, including the recent attack on the campus of Ohio State University.

According to a YouTube representative, “YouTube has clear policies in prohibiting terrorist recruitment and content intending to incite violence, and we quickly remove videos violating these policies when flagged by our users.” So why then are al-Awlaki’s videos allowed to remain on the platform, Lee asked.

“The short answer is his videos are still out there because like flag burning, they are protected speech,” Napolitano said. “Even though they are hateful, even though they advocate violence, even though they are profoundly un-American, they are protected speech…protected from the government…but not protected from YouTube, which is not the government.

“So the First Amendment says the government shall not interfere with free speech, but YouTube could take them down in a flash just because it doesn’t want this stuff being propagated on its platform.”

Napolitano said YouTube should make a “business judgment” on how to handle this content.

“If they think their their shareholders want a free and open platform where any political idea can be aired no matter how horrible, hateful or harmful it may be, they should keep it on there,” he said. “But if they want to cleanse the airwaves of this horror and terror producing stuff, they can take it down with impunity.”

‘Join the Revolution’: Al-Qaeda Makes Populist Pitch to Millennials

Osama bin Laden and Hamza bin Laden

Osama bin Laden and Hamza bin Laden

PJ Media, by Bridget Johnson, October 12, 2016:

Al-Qaeda is appealing to millennials with a cocktail of populism and Islam and directives to not admire grown “kids” in professional sports but “men… with their AK aimed at the enemy” — and to follow the latter into jihad.

The outreach was detailed in Al-Balagh, a recent magazine issued by al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent, a successful chapter announced by core leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in 2014 that has conducted a spree of machete assassinations against individuals deemed to have insulted Islam. One of the group’s earlier victims was an Atlanta couple who were secular writers visiting Bangladesh; Avijit Roy was hacked to death, while his wife Rafida Bonya Ahmed was seriously injured.

The 53-page inaugural issue of the magazine was printed in English and Bengali. The editor’s note at the beginning first details and slams the “criminal demon-crazy nexus which is known as democracy.”

“Thus, while the anti-Islamic bigots and hate-breeders are hailed as heroes by the rulers and the media, the Tawheed [monotheism]-loving Muslims who came out in the streets to protest the defamation of their beloved prophet are humiliated and massacred,” the column states in apparent reference to the bloggers, professors and journalists who have been hacked to death by AQIS.

The appeal to youth first uses the politics of Bangladesh as a backdrop, arguing that “the criminals siphon billions of dollars from the share market with ease and immersed in mirth, with no accountability whatsoever, while the devastated, burdened youth faced with unrelenting poverty and debt are forced to commit suicide.”

“Domestic maids succumb to death after enduring barbaric torture at the hands of distinguished citizens, while the killers are showered with flowers and garlands. Our mothers and sisters are abused in broad daylight, yet the criminals roam free,” the piece continues. “Every moment a new tragedy is born. It is impossible to keep track of the disasters plaguing this nation. So which one of these can one speak about? Such is the state of the country.”

“And what about the Muslim Ummah [community]? It seems no one even cares to inquire about the Muslims in Palestine anymore, although the criminal Zionist Israel is still surrounded by Muslim countries. I think it was Ali Tantawi who once said, ‘If Muslims can’t learn to resist Israel with weapons then they should learn how to die. You will see Israel be wiped off of the map with a flood of Muslim blood.'”

The article laments that in “Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, China, Myanmar, India, Pakistan — nowhere have the Muslims been able to be liberated.”

“I am not merely talking about the Western concept of ‘independence’ or ‘self-determination,’ but I am talking about true liberation, which can only come through the victory of the deen [religion]. I am talking about making Islam victorious,” the write continues.

“But the good news is a new wave, a reversal of the world order has started all over the world. A wave of Muslim youth is returning to Tawheed. A wave of the youth is returning to Islam. It is a return to the roots in order to bring back the glory and reclaim the honor, and to destroy the satanic civilization and establish the reign of the divine Shariah.”

“The Muslim youth,” argues the AQIS piece, “have started to realize that they have to rise up and join the caravan.”

“They have to join the resistance and the revolution. They have to conquer fear and walk on the same road on which the Salaf stepped upon. Only then true liberation and true victory will come. The Muslims have recognized the reality of the system of kufr [disbelief] imposed by the global kuffar. The magic of the magician has finally come undone,” continues the recruiting pitch.

Would-be jihadists are told that “with our backs to the wall, now is the time to fight back.”

“It is now or never. The Muslims all over the world are witnessing the help of Allah granted to the Mujahideen.” A few operations are mentioned, including “the beginning of the Third Intifada” in the Middle East.

“Oh youth! Tie your shroud around your head and join the golden caravan! The grown men who spend their times playing like kids in the fields of cricket are not your role models. Rather, your role models are men, firm in speech and in action. Men who lived with their head high and with their AK aimed at the enemy. Your role models are the lions of the Ummah, such as Umar and Usama – may Allah have mercy upon them,” states the piece.

“Yes, your role models are the likes of the reviving Imam, the hero of the afflicted Ummah, Shaykh Usama bin Ladin, who boldly stated, ‘I swear by Allah who has raised the heavens without any pillars, America and those living in America will not even dream of peace until we live it in Filisteen, and until all the kufr armies are expelled from the land of Muhammad.'”

There are also articles in the magazine geared toward a millennial audience, including age-oriented marriage guidelines. Al-Qaeda publications have often tried to include women writers to reach out to that demographic as well, and Al-Balagh includes a “Sisters’ Column: How I Came to Love the Niqab.”

The State Department designated AQIS as a foreign terrorist organization in June, 16 months after Roy’s murder.

The Treasury Department noted that younger leaders — “part of a new generation of al-Qaeda operatives” — have been quietly building up al-Qaeda in its July sanctions against three members of the terror group sheltering in Iran.

Osama bin Laden’s 11th son, Hamza, now in his mid-20s, has also been rallying millennials to jihad in audio messages over the past 14 months.

“The followers of the thought of Sheikh Osama, may Allah have mercy on him, which is represented by targeting the head of global disbelief that supports the Jews, have increased in number within a decade and a half, and became double in number,” Hamza bin Laden said in a July message.

“If you think that your sinful crime that you committed in Abbottabad has passed without punishment, then you thought wrong,” he added, referring to the U.S. raid in which his father was killed. “What is correct is coming to you, and its punishment is severe.”


What makes someone become an Islamic extremist? Is it poverty? Lack of education? A search for meaning? Haroon Ullah, a senior State Department advisor and a foreign policy professor at Georgetown University, shares what he discovered while living in Pakistan.

Islamic militant groups’ recruits likely to be well educated, study finds

 Islamic State fighters parading through Raqqa in Syria. Photograph: Uncredited/AP

Islamic State fighters parading through Raqqa in Syria. Photograph: Uncredited/AP

Guardian, by Jason Burke, October 5, 2016:

Recruits to Islamic militant groups are likely to be well educated and relatively wealthy, with those aspiring to be suicide bombers among the best off, a study by the World Bank has found.

The research, based on internal records from the Islamic State group, will reinforce the growing conclusion among specialists that there is no obvious link between poverty or educational levels and radicalisation.

The data, leaked by a disaffected former member of Isis in March, includes basic information on 3,803 foreign recruits from all over the Islamic world and Europe who joined the organisation between early 2013 and late 2014, when the flow of volunteers to the organisation reached a peak.

Those arriving in Isis-controlled territory were vetted and interviewed. Data on country of residence, citizenship, marital status, skills, educational status, previous extremist experience and knowledge of Islamic law was recorded.

The World Bank study found that 69% of recruits reported at least a secondary level education while “15% left school before high school and less than 2% are illiterate”.

The educational level of recruits from north Africa or the Middle East was significantly greater than that of most of their compatriots, the researchers found.

“A large fraction have gone on to study at university … Recruits from Africa, south and east Asia and the Middle East are significantly more educated than individuals from their cohort in their region of origin,” the report said.

The recruits were also asked by Isis what role they hoped to play within the group. The proportions of those who wanted to be administrators and “suicide fighters” increased with education, the report’s authors noted.

Neither inequality nor poverty was a driver of involvement in violent extremism, and wealthier countries were more likely to supply foreign recruits for Isis, the report found.

“In countries with a large Muslim population, low degrees of religiosity, low levels of trust in religious institutions and strong government and social control of religion seem to be risk factors of radicalisation,” the report said.

Ongoing research into causes of Islamic militancy has underlined the complexity of motives of recruits and volunteers, as well as the differences between different conflict zones.

Read more

Also see:

This former punk rocker now trains female ISIS fighters to attack Western targets | Shutterstock | Shutterstock

Conservative Review, by Nate Madden, Sept. 13, 2016:

A high profile British jihadi bride and former punk rocker is currently living in Raqqa, Syria and training women to carry out ISIS attacks in the West.

Sally Jones became the most wanted female jihadist in the world in 2013 when she fled Britain (along with her 11-year-old son) to join ISIS with her husband to-be, Junaid Hussain (since killed in a drone strike).

According to a report at the U.K. Telegraph over the weekend:

In February this year she is said to have moved with Joe into an apartment on al-Thakna street in southern Raqqa, sharing a building with the families of a French and an Uzbek fighter.   

Following Hussain’s death she was put in charge of training all European female recruits, or “muhajirat”. 

She has been entrusted with leading the secretive female wing of the Anwar al-Awlaki battalion, a unit founded by her late husband that is composed solely of foreign fighters with the purpose of planning and executing attacks in the West.

The report later details that Jones’ responsibilities in the unit include training female Islamic recruits in weaponry, combat, and carrying out “suicide missions against Western targets.”

Jones is also believed to have recruited dozens of other women to the so-called caliphate via social media.

“Isil respects her because she is the widow of Junaid, who was very important to the group,” says a former ISIS militant who confirmed the 47-year-old mother’s role in the insurgency. “[Jones] is also influential in her own right. She was the reason Isil was able to recruit a lot of Western girls to Raqqa: it’s not easy to convince a Christian, rock girl to become an extremist.”

Jone’s pre-teen son, Jojo, was believed to be the executioner in an ISIS propaganda video released in late August, in which a child is shown murdering a captured Kurdish fighter.

Last November, U.S. President Barack Obama criticized opponents of his Syrian refugee program as being “scared of widows and orphans,” despite the fact that terror organizations have made a concerted effort to infiltrate refugee populations and train women and children to carry out its barbaric mission in the West.

Nate Madden is a Staff Writer for Conservative Review, focusing on religious freedom, jihadism, and the judiciary. He previously served as the Director of Policy Relations for the 21st Century Wilberforce Initiative. A Publius Fellow, John Jay Fellow, Citadel Parliamentary Fellow and National Journalism Center alumnus, Nate’s writing has previously appeared in several religious and news publications. Follow him @NateMadden_IV.

Rising Threat: The Islamic States’s Militarization of Children


Threat Knowledge Group, September 2016


Rising Threat: The Islamic State’s Militarization of Children (pdf)

Dr. Sebastian L. Gorka
Katharine C. Gorka
Claire Herzog

The rate at which the Islamic State is recruiting, training, and exploiting children presents a new set of challenges for U.S. warfighters and law enforcement.

Not only do we risk overlooking the threat posed by children, assuming their innocence, but we also run the risk of moral injury and increased rates of PTSD to those who must confront this threat.

This paper looks at how the Islamic State is militarizing children in order to better prepare the United States to face this new and rising threat.